A brain aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in a blood vessel in the brain. This weakness in the artery wall may eventually cause the cerebral aneurysm to rupture. A ruptured aneurysm leads to bleeding in the brain, which is a serious condition called subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysms are believed to form over time as a result of blood flow over a weak spot. Many people live with small brain aneurysms that go unnoticed.
The causes of brain aneurysms aren't fully known, but risk increases as people age, and it is most common in women older than 40. An aneurysm could be the result of a genetic blood vessel defect or a weakening over time, especially where vessels fork near the base of the brain.
About five million people in the United States have some form of brain aneurysm. Common risk factors that may contribute to having an aneurysm include:
Risk of rupture increases when the blood pressure in the vessel rises. Rupture risks also depend on the size and shape of the aneurysm, among many other variables. Expert and prompt evaluation, and treatment if needed, can decrease the risk of rupture.
The symptoms of a brain aneurysm can vary based on the type. The most common symptom is headaches but may also include a range of other signs of a brain aneurysm, such as vision changes, numbness of the head, pain above or behind the eyes, and neck pain.
A small, unruptured aneurysm may produce no symptoms at all. Even with a larger aneurysm, symptoms may not appear until the aneurysm ruptures. A large unruptured aneurysm may cause:
An aneurysm that is leaking but not ruptured may cause a sudden and severe headache, but typically no other symptoms. A more serious aneurysm rupture can follow soon after leaking.
When a brain aneurysm ruptures, the patient typically experiences a sudden and severe headache. The patient may also experience:
If you notice these symptoms, call 9-1-1 or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
Many brain aneurysms go undiscovered until they rupture, but others are found through imaging exams. Early signs and symptoms can lead to a series of tests to determine a brain aneurysm diagnosis. If an aneurysm is suspected or if you have a family history of cerebral aneurysms, common tests include:
A ruptured aneurysm requires emergency treatment to decrease the likelihood that it will bleed again. Unruptured small aneurysms have a low risk of rupture and can be regularly monitored. But as their size increases, so does the risk. Larger aneurysms generally require treatment. Overall, many factors contribute to predicting the future risk of rupture that your neurosurgeon will synthesize together and weigh against your risks of treatment.
The treatment goal for both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms is to reduce the risk of future rupture. This can be done in two ways:
The method of treatment used depends upon the patient's age and overall health, the extent of the condition, the specific brain aneurysm symptoms, the patient's tolerance for medications and personal preferences. Expert and prompt evaluation and treatment are critical, as a brain aneurysm rupture is fatal in 50% of patients and causes severe neurologic deficits in 25% of patients.
Learn more about brain aneurysm treatment at Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Up to 6% of people living in the United States have an unruptured brain aneurysm. While still rare, they do happen to up to 30,000 Americans each year. Brain aneurysms occur in both males and females and at any age, but brain aneurysms are most common in female adults between ages 40 and 60.
The seriousness of a brain aneurysm is based on if it has ruptured and/or if the aneurysm causes symptoms. Most aneurysms don't rupture or cause symptoms, but when they do rupture, they can become life-threatening and demand immediate medical attention.
Most people who have a brain aneurysm live normally without being aware they have one. Since many aneurysms don't cause health issues or exhibit symptoms, people can live for years without knowing they have a brain aneurysm.
It is rare for a brain aneurysm to go away on its own. An aneurysm can change over time, based on lifestyle changes.
A brain aneurysm can lead to a stroke, but not the other way around. The weakening of the blood vessel wall that occurs during an aneurysm can eventually rupture, sending blood to the brain and leading to a stroke. A stroke happens when blood flow to the brain is impeded. In an ischemic stroke, a ruptured blood vessel from an aneurysm can cause arteries to spasm and stop blood flow to a specific part of the brain.
Receiving prompt evaluation and treatment for a brain aneurysm that hasn't ruptured is critical for preventing neurologic problems and even saving your life. The neurosurgeons at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Center for Cerebrovascular Diseases offer exceptional, individualized care in treating unruptured brain aneurysms, collaborating with neurologists and neuroradiologists—and with you—to determine the best treatment approach given your individual circumstances.
As a patient at Brigham and Women's, you can count on:
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