The BWH Lupus Center has been the home of many important past lupus research investigations and many studies are ongoing. The Center has a rich history of research on lupus. For many years, Dr. Peter Schur has been a world leader in clinical care and immunologic testing for lupus. He has written extensively on lupus, including several comprehensive textbooks, and he is the head of the BWH Immunology laboratory. Clinical investigator and epidemiologist, Dr. Karen Costenbader has investigated possible causes of lupus, including reproductive hormones, environmental exposures, and dietary factors, as well as outcomes among those with lupus. Dr. Bonnie Bermas is a leading expert in reproductive issues and pregnancy in women with lupus and antiphospholipid antibodies. Under the leadership of Dr. Elena Massarotti, several clinical trials have been performed, and more are underway, testing new treatments of the manifestations of lupus, including kidney disease. New member BWH Lupus physicians and investigators, including Drs. Candace Feldman, Joseph Merola, Medha Barbhaiya, and Sara Tedeschi are involved in examinations of lupus nephritis and end-stage renal disease, avascular necrosis, skin disease in lupus, heart attacks and strokes, osteoporosis, and medications and adherence among lupus patients. A biobank of anonymous samples and clinical information has allowed study of new biomarkers of lupus disease activity and of genetic factors related to the risk of developing lupus. In the basic science laboratory, Dr. Deepak Rao and colleagues are investigating characteristics of individual immune cells in the blood and kidneys of patients with SLE.